[[ Astyanax Baird & GirardZBK]]
The genus Astyanax Baird & Girard, 1854ZBK is diverse and widespread in freshwaters of South America, including at least 86 described species (Lima et al., 2003). AstyanaxZBK is likely a non-monophyletic genus (Weitzman & Malabarba, 1998), and the taxonomic status of some species is not completely clear.
During field expeditions to the rio da Várzea headwaters, a tributary of the upper portions of the rio Iguaçu in Paraná State, Brazil (Fig. 1), a new characid species was collected that presents the morphological features of the A. scabripinnis species complex. This non-monophyletic group, proposed by Moreira-Filho & Bertollo (1991) and subsequently discussed by Bertaco & Malabarba (2001) and Bertaco & Lucena (2006), possesses an elongated body (2.6 to 3.6 body depth in SL), a reduced number of branched anal-fin ray (13 to 21), a tall head region, and body deepest over middle of pectoral fins.