Pheidole megacephala (Fabricius)

Eguchi, K., 2008, A revision of Northern Vietnamese species of the ant genus Pheidole (Insecta: Hymenoptera: Formicidae: Myrmicinae)., Zootaxa 1902, pp. 1-118: 55-59

publication ID

22171

persistent identifier

http://treatment.plazi.org/id/EE2BFB23-7D94-4711-9362-1F017B124456

treatment provided by

Christiana

scientific name

Pheidole megacephala (Fabricius)
status

 

Pheidole megacephala (Fabricius)  HNS 

Figs. 15a-g

Formica megacephala Fabricius  HNS  , 1793: 36. Roger 1863b: 30 (combination in Pheidole  HNS  ). Syntype(s): major, no locality given, not examined.

Myrmica trinodis Losana  HNS  , 1834: 327. Roger 1863b: 30 (junior synonym of megacephala  HNS  ). Syntype(s): "worker", Italy, not examined.

Formica edax Forskal  HNS  , 1775: 84. Emery 1892: 160 (junior synonym of megacephala  HNS  ), Dalla Torre 1892: 90 (same). Syntype(s): "worker", Egypt, not examined.

Oecophthora perniciosa Gerstacker  HNS  , 1859: 263. Roger 1863b: 31 (combination in Pheidole  HNS  ), Emery, 1915c: 235 (junior synonym of megacephala  HNS  ). Syntype(s): "worker", Mozambique, not examined.

Oecophthora pusilla Heer  HNS  , 1852: 15. F. Smith 1858: 173 (combination in Pheidole  HNS  ), Roger 1859: 259 (senior synonym of laevigata Fr. Smith  HNS  , 1855: 130), Mayr 1870: 981 (senior synonym of laevigata Mayr  HNS  , 1862: 747), Mayr 1886: 360 (senior synonym of janus  HNS  ), Emery 1915: 235 (subspecies of megacephala  HNS  ), Wheeler 1922: 812 (junior synonym of megacephala  HNS  ). Syntypes: major, minor, queen & male, Madeira, not examined.

Myrmica agilis F. Smith  HNS  , 1857: 71. Donisthorpe 1932: 449 (combination in Pheidole  HNS  ). Syn.n. Syntypes: 3 minors, "MALAC" [= Malacca, S. Malay Peninsula], OXUM TYPE HYM: 988 1-3/3, examined.

Myrmica suspiciosa F. Smith  HNS  , 1859: 148. Donisthorpe 1932: 455 (junior synonym of megacephala  HNS  ). Syntype (s): "worker", Aru I. (Indonesia), not examined.

Atta testacea F. Smith  HNS  , 1858: 168. Mayr 1886: 360 (combination in Pheidole  HNS  ), Brown, 1981: 530 (junior synonym of megacephala  HNS  ). Syntypes: major & minor, Brazil, not examined.

Subspecies enumerated in Bolton, 1995: nominal plus costauriensis Santschi  HNS  , 1914: 443, syntype(s): major, Ghana, not examined; duplex Santschi  HNS  , 1937a: 220, syntypes: major, minor & queen, Angola, not examined; ilgi Forel  HNS  , 1907: 82, syntypes: major & minor, Ethiopia, not examined.; impressifrons Wasmann  HNS  , 1905: 110 (replacement name for impressiceps Wasmann  HNS  , 1904: 72), syntypes: major, minor & queen, South Africa, not examined; melancholica Santschi  HNS  , 1912: 164, syntypes: major & minor, Ivory Coast, not examined; nkomoana Forel  HNS  , 1916: 415, syntypes: major, minor, queen & male, Zaire, not examined; rotundata Forel  HNS  , 1894: 92, syntypes: major & minor, Mozambique, not examined; scabrior Forel  HNS  , 1891: 178, syntypes: major & minor, Madagascar, not examined; speculifrons Stitz  HNS  , 1911: 386, syntypes: major & minor, Tanzania, not examined; talpa Gerstacker  HNS  , 1871: 356, syntypes: "worker" & queen, Kenya, not examined. For these forms type material not examined.

Other material examined: S. China: Hong Kong: Victoria Park, Hong Kong I. [K. Eguchi]; Macau: Mong Ha [K. Eguchi]. N. Vietnam: Ha Noi: Hanoi Agric. Univ. (Gia Lam) [K. Ogata: 15-min TUS #2]; Quang Ninh: Hoanh Bo [K. Eguchi]. S. Vietnam: Vinh Long (misspelled as "Vinlong"): Vinh Long (10°15'N, 105°58'N) [S. Kawaguchi]. Thailand: Trang: Khao Chong Waterfall [Eg01-VN-761]. W. Malaysia: Penang: beside a building of Univ. Sains Malaysia [C.Y. Lee]. E. Malaysia: Sabah: Kota Kinabalu [Eg97-BOR-376], Tambunan Village [H. Okido], Danam Valley [Eg96-BOR-108]. Indonesia: Kalimantan Timur: Tandjung Isuy [Seyfert & Graindl]; Irian Jaya: Wamena, 1600 m alt. [Eg98-IRI-674, -675, -676, -703]. Australia: Queensland: S. Mission Beach near Tully [AU01-SKY-12]. Tonga: Tongatapu: Vaini [J.K. Wetterer].

Worker measurements & indices: Major (n=5). - HL 1.28-1.45 mm; HW 1.25-1.45 mm; CI 98-100; SL 0.71-0.76 mm; SI 52-57; FL 0.94-0.98 mm; FI 68-77.

Minor (n=5). - HL 0.62-0.72 mm; HW 0.55-0.65 mm; CI 88-91; SL 0.67-0.73 mm; SI 111-121; FL 0.68-0.77 mm; FI 118-123. Worker description

Major. - Head in lateral view roundly convex dorsally, not impressed on vertex, in full-face view shallowly concave posteriorly; frons longitudinally rugose (or rarely almost smooth, only sparsely with short interrupted longitudinal rugulae); vertex and dorsum of vertexal lobe smooth and shining or shagreened; frontal carina absent or present just as weak rugula(e); antennal scrobe absent; median longitudinal carina of clypeus weak or absent; hypostoma at most with a pair of very small or inconspicuous submedian processes in addition to a pair of conspicuous lateral processes; antenna with a 3-segmented club; maximal diameter of eye almost as long as or longer than antennal segment X. Promesonotal dome in dorsal view smooth and shining or shagreened, sometimes with several weak transverse rugulae, in lateral view at most with an inconspicuous mound on its posterior slope; humerus not or weakly produced laterad; the dome at the humeri narrower than at the bottom; mesopleuron, metapleuron and lateral face of propodeum weakly or very weakly punctured. Petiole a little longer than postpetiole (excluding helcium); postpetiole not massive; its anteroventral part weakly swollen. First gastral tergite smooth and shining entirely, or very weakly punctured around its articulation with postpetiole and smooth or shagreened in the remainder.

Minor. - Head smooth and shining; preoccipital carina weak but present dorsally and laterally; median part of clypeus smooth and shining, without a median longitudinal carina; antenna with a 3-segmented club; scape extending beyond posterolateral margin of head by the double length of antennal segment II or more; maximal diameter of eye almost as long as, or sometimes a little shorter than antennal segment X. Promesonotal dome smooth and shining, in lateral view lacking a mound on its posterior slope; humerus in dorso-oblique view not or hardly produced; mesopleuron, metapleuron and lateral face of propodeum punctured weakly; metanotal groove inconspicuous. Petiole almost as long as or a little longer than postpetiole (excluding helcium); postpetiole relatively long but not massive; its anteroventral part weakly swollen.

Recognition: The syntype minors of " Myrmica agilis  HNS  " agree well with minors of Bornean populations (e.g., Eg96-BOR-108) of P megacephala  HNS  . I conclude that P agilis  HNS  is a juninor synonym of P megacephala  HNS  .

P. megacephala  HNS  is well distinguished from Indo-Chinese species by the combination of the following characteristics: in the major head in full-face view only shallowly concave posteriorly; in the major dorsum of vertexal lobe smooth and shining or shagreened; in the major hypostoma in the middle at most with a pair of very small or inconspicuous submedian processes; in the minor preoccipital carina weak but present dorsally and laterally; posterior slope of promesonotal dome at most with an inconspicuous mound in the major, and without any mound in the minor; in the major and minor anteroventral part of postpetiole weakly swollen.

Distribution & bionomics: Widely distributed in the world tropics and subtropics. For detailed information on biology and ecological and economic impacts of this species see Reimer et al. (1993), Campbell (1994), Hoffmann (1998), Wetterer (1998), Hoffmann et al. (1999), Vanderwoude et al. (2000), etc.

Kingdom

Animalia

Phylum

Arthropoda

Class

Insecta

Order

Hymenoptera

Family

Formicidae

Genus

Pheidole