Pheidole fervens F. Smith

Eguchi, K., 2008, A revision of Northern Vietnamese species of the ant genus Pheidole (Insecta: Hymenoptera: Formicidae: Myrmicinae)., Zootaxa 1902, pp. 1-118: 24-27

publication ID

22171

persistent identifier

http://treatment.plazi.org/id/A247CE05-6C45-31A1-9AD3-C413B564AADC

treatment provided by

Christiana

scientific name

Pheidole fervens F. Smith
status

 

Pheidole fervens F. Smith  HNS 

Figs. 5a-g

Pheidole fervens F. Smith  HNS  , 1858: 176. Ogata 1982: 197 (description of male), Eguchi 2001b: 53-55 (redescription of major & minor), Eguchi 2004: 197-198 (taxonomic remarks). Syntypes: 1 major & 2 minors, "SING 33" [Singapore], BMNH, examined.

Pheidole cavannae Emery  HNS  , 1887: 464. Emery 1914: 401 (as subspecies of P. oceanica  HNS  ), Wilson & Taylor 1967: 45 (junior synonym offervens). Syntype(s): major, New Caledonia, not examined.

Pheidole javana Mayr  HNS  , 1867: 98. Wilson & Taylor 1967: 45 (junior synonym of fervens  HNS  ), Eguchi 2004: 197 (lectotype designation). Lectotype: major: "Batavia" [Jakarta, Java], NHMW, examined; paralectotypes: 2 majors, same data as lectotype, NHMW, examined.

Pheidole (Pheidole) oceanica var. nigriscapa Santschi  HNS  , 1928a: 48. Wilson & Taylor 1967: 45 (junior synonym of fervens  HNS  ). Syntype: 1 minor, "SAMOAN IS. Apia. 3.iii.24. P.A.Buxton. 627.", NHMB, examined; syntype(?): 1 major, "Apia, Samoa oct 1911. (leg. H. Swole)", NHMB, examined.

Pheidole oceanica subsp. nigriscapa var. tahitiana Santschi  HNS  , 1928b: 516 (unavailable name). Wilson & Taylor 1967: 45 (material referable to P. fervens  HNS  ). Material referable to this form: minor, Tahiti, not examined.

Pheidole amia Forel  HNS  , 1912a: 60-61. Bolton 1995: 316 (catalogue), Eguchi 2004: 197 (lectotype designation, junior synonym of fervens  HNS  ). Lectotype: major, "Takao Formosa Sauter XI 7-0" [= Kaohsiung, Taiwan], MHNG, examined; paralectotypes: 3 minors, "Takao Formosa (Sauter) 26", MHNG, examined.

Pheidole javana var. desucta Wheeler  HNS  , 1929a: 2. Eguchi 2001b: 53 (lectotype designation, junior synonym offervens). Lectotype: major, "Back Liang, China", MCZC co-type 20659, examined; paralectotypes: 1 major, 2 minors & 3 queens, same data as lectotype, MCZC co-type 20659, examined.

Pheidole javana var. dharmsalana Forel  HNS  , 1902: 184, 198. Eguchi 2004: 198 (lectotype designation, junior synonym of fervens  HNS  ). Lectotype: major, "Dharmsala" [India], MHNG, examined; paralectotypes: 2 minors, same data as lectotype, MHNG, examined.

Pheidole javana var. dolenda Forel  HNS  , 1912a: 60. Eguchi 2004: 198 (lectotype designation, junior synonym of fervens  HNS  ). Lectotype: major, "Akau, Formosa", MHNG, examined; paralectotypes: 1 major & 3 minors, same data as lectotype, MHNG, examined.

Pheidole javana var. soror Santschi  HNS  , 1937b: 369. Eguchi 2004: 198 (lectotype designation, junior synonym offervens). Lectotype: major, "Hokuto Formose K. Sato 731" [= Taiwan], NHMB, examined; paralectotypes: 4 minors, same data as lectotype, NHMB, examined.

Pheidole nodus st. azumai Santschi  HNS  , 1941: 274. Eguchi 2004: 198 (lectotype designation, junior synonym of fervens  HNS  ). Lectotype: major, "Japon. Osaka Tennooji 26II39 M. Azuma." [= Tennooji, Osaka, Japan], NHMB, examined; paralectotypes: 2 minors, same data as holotype, NHMB, examined.

Solenopsis pungens F. Smith  HNS  , 1861: 48-49. Donisthorpe 1932: 469 (combination in Pheidologeton  HNS  ), Bolton1995: 328 (combination in Pheidole  HNS  ), Eguchi 2004: 198 (lectotype designation, junior synonym of fervens  HNS  ). Lectotype: major, "Menado" [= Menado Sulawesi, Indonesia], OXUM, examined; paralectotypes: 1 major, same data as lectotype, OXUM, examined; 1 minor, "Men. 18." [= Menado Sulawesi, Indonesia], OXUM, examined.

Type material of P. javana var. pectinata Stitz  HNS  , 1912: 504 (type locality: Seram I., Indonesia) has not yet been examined by me, and its status is still unsettled in the present study.

Other material examined: Mainland Japan: Kagoshima: Toso, Kagoshima City [T. Akiyama's colony: 021105-1]. Ryukyus: Okinoerabu-jima I.: Azufu, [Litter shift-3 (A. Shimono)]; Iriomote-jima I. [K. Eguchi's colony 96-JPN-001, -003]. Taiwan: Nantou: Hori [S. Kubota's sample: 81-A-T16]; Kaohsiung: Meishankou [S. Kubota's sample: 80-E-K6]. S. China: Macau: Taipa I. [Eg99-MAC-01, -02], Hac-Sa, Coloane I. [K. Eguchi]; Hong Kong: Victoria Park, Hong Kong I. [K. Eguchi]. Vietnam: Thai Nguyen: My Yen Commune Forest (edge of secondary forest), 21°35'N, 105°36'E, Na Hau Village [Eg01-VN-143, -149, -150]; Ha Noi: urban area [T.V. Bui's colony: BTV04-HN-01, -14, -15, -16]. Thailand: Bangkok: Campus of Kasetsart Univ. [Eg01- TH-583, -584], Bang Khean Distr. (residential area) [TH03-SKY-103]; Chanthaburi: Yay-am Dist. [Eg01-TH- 66B]. E. Malaysia: Sabah: Tawau Hills Park [Eg96-BOR-009, -021]; Sarawak: Niah N.P. [Sk. Yamane]. Indonesia: W. Sumatra: Maninjau, [SNS col.], Sako, nr. Tapan [SNS col.], Sukarami, Padang [M. Kawamura's colony: 9/28a (1999)], Ulu Gadut, nr. Padang [SNS col.]; W. Java: Bogor [M. Kawamura's colony: 153 (1998)]; E. Java: Air Panas Cargar, 1600 m alt., Bumiaji, Batu [JV02/03-SKY-71, -72, -73, -75, -80], Sumberbrantas, 1600 m alt., Tulungrejo, Batu [F. Yamane]. Philippines: Palawan: Pupok, Napsan, in a cottage [H. Fukuda]. Tonga: Eua Is.: Eua Forest Res. [J. Wetterer]. Samoa: Apia [H. Swole, NHMB]. USA: California: Los Angeles[M.J. Martinez, MCZC].

Worker measurements & indices: Major (n=5). - HL 1.31-1.56 mm; HW 1.22-1.44 mm; CI 92-97; SL 0.84-0.95 mm; SI 66-70; FL 1.12-1.27 mm; FI 88-94.

Minor (n=5). - HL 0.65-0.73 mm; HW 0.54-0.60 mm; CI 81-84; SL 0.77-0.87 mm; SI 138-153; FL 0.81-0.93 mm; FI 149-163.

Worker description

Major. - Head in lateral view not or hardly impressed on vertex; posterior concavity of head in full-face view usually shallow; frons and anterior part of vertex rugose longitudinally; posterior part of vertex and dorsal face of vertexal lobe rugoso-reticulate, with interspaces weakly punctured; frontal carina conspicuous; antennal scrobe inconspicuous or shallowly impressed; clypeus without a median longitudinal carina; median and submedian processes of hypostoma absent or present but inconspicuous; lateral processes conspicuous; antenna with a 3-segmented club; maximal diameter of eye almost as long as or shorter than antennal segment X. Promesonotal dome in dorsal view largely smooth, or sparsely sculptured with weak transverse rugulae, in lateral view with a low to conspicuous mound on its posterior slope; humerus not produced; the dome much narrower at the humeri than at the bottom; mesopleuron, metapleuron and lateral face of propodeum well punctured, sometimes overlain with weak rugulae; propodeal spine narrowly based, usually slightly curved apically. Petiole longer than postpetiole (excluding helcium); postpetiole not massive. First gastral tergite smooth and shining entirely, or sometimes shagreened around its articulation with postpetiole.

Minor. - Frons and vertex smooth and shining, or rarely shagreened or very weakly rugoso-punctate; area between antennal insertion and eye weakly rugoso-punctate; preoccipital carina conspicuous dorsally and laterally; median part of clypeus smooth, without a median longitudinal carina; antenna with a 3-segmented club; scape extending far beyond posterolateral margin of head; maximal diameter of eye much shorter than antennal segment X. Promesonotal dome largely smooth and shining, but sometimes weakly rugoso-punctate dorsolaterally, in lateral view with a low or inconspicuous mound on its gentle posterior slope; humerus of the dome in dorsal-oblique view not produced; mesopleuron, metapleuron and lateral face of propodeum well punctured; propodeal spine elongate-triangular, directing upward. Petiole (a little) longer than postpetiole (excluding helcium); postpetiole not massive.

Recognition: This medium-sized species with general habitus is similar to Pheidole binghamii Forel  HNS  , P. elongicephala  HNS  sp.n., P. indica Mayr  HNS  , P. ochracea  HNS  sp.n. and P. plagiaria F. Smith  HNS  among Indo-Chinese species. P. fervens  HNS  is well separated from P. indica  HNS  which has the following characteristics: eye relatively large (maximal diameter of eye much longer than antennal segment X in the major, and as long as or a little longer than X in the minor); in the major propodeal spine is relatively broadly based (see Eguchi 2004).

Posterior margin of head in full-face view is more deeply and narrowly concave in the major of P. binghamii,  HNS  P. elongicephala  HNS  and P. ochracea  HNS  than in that of P. fervens  HNS  , and sculpture on dorsum of vertexal lobe is usually stronger in the major of the former three.

The major of P fervens  HNS  is separated from that of P. plagiaria  HNS  which has the following characteristics: posterior margin of head in full-face view deeply concave; the rugulae running almost transversely along posterior margin of vertexal lobe.

Distribution & bionomics: Known from N. Vietnam, Manchurian subregion (southern part only), Oriental region, Austro-Malayan subregion, W. Pacific and West coast of N. America. In the Indo-Malayan subregion this species is one of the prevailing Pheidole  HNS  species in semiurban and rural areas.

BMNH

United Kingdom, London, The Natural History Museum [formerly British Museum (Natural History)]

NHMW

Austria, Wien, Naturhistorisches Museum Wien

NHMB

Switzerland, Basel, Naturhistorisches Museum

MHNG

Switzerland, Geneva, Museum d'Histoire Naturelle

MCZC

USA, Massachusetts, Cambridge, Harvard University, Museum of Comparative Zoology

OXUM

United Kingdom, Oxford, University Museum of Natural History

Kingdom

Animalia

Phylum

Arthropoda

Class

Insecta

Order

Hymenoptera

Family

Formicidae

Genus

Pheidole