Mesabolivar aurantiacus ( Mello-Leitão, 1930 )

Huber, Bernhard A., 2018, The South American spider genera Mesabolivar and Carapoia (Araneae, Pholcidae): new species and a framework for redrawing generic limits, Zootaxa 4395 (1), pp. 1-178: 29-30

publication ID

https://doi.org/10.11646/zootaxa.4395.1.1

publication LSID

lsid:zoobank.org:pub:B43C234D-45C4-4A6D-9836-8A7524A5B291

persistent identifier

http://treatment.plazi.org/id/160AC713-C668-FF98-2A9C-9E3D30FA7EBD

treatment provided by

Plazi

scientific name

Mesabolivar aurantiacus ( Mello-Leitão, 1930 )
status

 

Mesabolivar aurantiacus ( Mello-Leitão, 1930) 

Figs 78–81 View Figure , 98–99 View Figure , 106–107 View Figure

Blechroscelis aurantiacus Mello-Leitão, 1930: 61  , fig. 13 (♂, Brazil: Pará).

Blechroscelis irroratus Mello-Leitão, 1947a: 160  , figs 4–5 (♂♀, Brazil: Pará). Synonymized in Huber 2000: 206.

Blechroscelis virescens Mello-Leitão, 1947a: 161  , fig. 6 (♂, Guyana). Synonymized in Huber 2000: 206.

Psilochorus cambridgei Mello-Leitão, 1947a: 163  (♂♀, Brazil: Pará); name preoccupied ( Psilochorus cambridgei Gertsch & Davis, 1937  ).

Psilochorus browningi Roewer, 1951: 455  ; new name for Psilochorus cambridgei Mello-Leitão, 1947a  . Synonymized in Huber 2000: 206.

Mesabolivar aurantiacus: Huber 2000: 206  , figs 42, 43, 81, 801–810.

Autana autanensis González-Sponga, 2011b: 40  , pl. 1, figs 1–7 (♂, Venezuela). Synonymized in Huber et al. 2014a: 419.

Misidentification

Mesabolivari pseudoblechroscelis: González-Sponga 1998: 27  , figs 40–41 (♀ paratype only).

Diagnosis. (amendments; see Huber 2000). Easily distinguished from similar congeners ( M. spinosus  , M. cyaneus  , M. macushi  ) by male procursus (distinctive ventral process and sclerite embedded in membrane; Figs 98–99 View Figure ), by tip of male bulbal process ( Figs 106–107 View Figure ; mostly membranous with slender process, similar to M. macushi  ), and by epigynal pocket continuing anteriorly into long furrow (Huber 2000: fig. 808). From M. spinosus  also by much more slender palpal femur.

Type material. Blechroscelis aurantiacus Mello-Leitão, 1930  : BRAZIL: Pará: 2♂ syntypes, MNRJAbout MNRJ, Cuminá [1.35°S, 56.05°W], no further data, examined (Huber 2000).GoogleMaps 

Blechroscelis irroratus Mello-Leitão, 1947  : BRAZIL: Pará: 1♀ type (? – see Huber 2000), BMNH (1897.9.21 501–508), Breves [1.68°S, 50.47°W], leg. F.O. Pickard-Cambridge, examined (Huber 2000).GoogleMaps 

Blechroscelis virescens Mello-Leitão, 1947  : GUYANA: 1♂ type (? – see Huber 2000), BMNH (1897.8.5.3.8), Higher Potaro River [~ 5.1°N, 59.5°W], examined (Huber 2000).GoogleMaps 

Psilochorus cambridgei Mello-Leitão, 1947  : BRAZIL: Pará: 1♀ type, BMNH (1897.9.20 501–508), Breves [1.68°S, 50.47°W], no further data, examined (Huber 2000).GoogleMaps 

Autana autanensis González-Sponga, 2011  : VENEZUELA: Amazonas: ♂ holotype, MIZA (MAGS 1162), Municipio Autana  , Rio Autana  (4°55’N, 67°24’W, 250 m), iii.1989 (S. Obispo), not examined.

New material examined. BRAZIL: Pará: 10♂ 4♀, ZFMKAbout ZFMK ( Ar 18963), Belém, Parque Estadual do Utinga, ‘site 1’ (1.424°S, 48.429°W), 25 m a.s.l., 5.x.2016 (B.A. Huber, L.S. Carvalho)GoogleMaps  ; 3♀ in pure ethanol, ZFMKAbout ZFMK (Br 16- 234), same dataGoogleMaps  . 14♂ 9♀, ZFMKAbout ZFMK (Ar 18964–65), Belém, Parque Estadual do Utinga , ‘site 2’ (1.433°S, 48.410°W), 25 m a.s.l., 5–6.x.2016 (B.A. Huber, L.S. Carvalho)GoogleMaps  ; 1♂ 2♀ in pure ethanol, ZFMKAbout ZFMK (Br 16-228a), same dataGoogleMaps  . 8♂ 3♀, ZFMKAbout ZFMK (Ar 18966), Marabá , forest near road, ‘site 1’ (5.414°S, 49.074°W), 140 m a.s.l., 7–8.x.2016 (B.A. Huber, L.S. Carvalho)GoogleMaps  ; 1♂ 1♀ in pure ethanol, ZFMKAbout ZFMK (Br 16-237), same dataGoogleMaps  . 3♂ 9♀, ZFMKAbout ZFMK (Ar 18967), Serra Pelada (5.931°S, 49.674°W), 140 m a.s.l., rocky hill, 9.x.2016 (B.A. Huber, L.S. Carvalho)GoogleMaps  ; 2♀ 1 juv. in pure ethanol, ZFMKAbout ZFMK (Br 16-242), same dataGoogleMaps  . 3♂ 4♀, ZFMKAbout ZFMK (Ar 18968), Floresta Nacional de Tapajós , km 67, ‘site 1’ (2.847°S, 54.972°W), 180 m a.s.l., 15.x.2016 (B.A. Huber, L.S. Carvalho)GoogleMaps  . 3♂ 3♀, ZFMKAbout ZFMK (Ar 18969), Floresta Nacional de Tapajós , km 67, ‘site 2’ (2.875°S, 54.941°W), 190 m a.s.l., 15.x.2016 (B.A. Huber, L.S. Carvalho)GoogleMaps  . 1♀, ZFMKAbout ZFMK (Ar 18970), Floresta Nacional de Tapajós , km 72, ‘site 2’ (2.940°S, 54.933°W), 140 m a.s.l., 17.x.2016 (B.A. Huber, L.S. Carvalho)GoogleMaps  . 2♂ 2♀, ZFMKAbout ZFMK (Ar 18971), Floresta Nacional de Tapajós , km 83 (3.049°S, 54.928°W), 95 m a.s.l., 14–18.x.2016 (B.A. Huber, L.S. Carvalho)GoogleMaps  . 5♂ 3♀, ZFMKAbout ZFMK (Ar 18972), Floresta Nacional de Tapajós , km 221 (4.046°S, 54.938°W), 80 m a.s.l., 16.x.2016 (B.A. Huber, L.S. Carvalho)GoogleMaps  ; 1♂ in pure ethanol, ZFMKAbout ZFMK (Br 16-276), same dataGoogleMaps  .

Amapá: 7♂ 10♀, ZFMKAbout ZFMK (Ar 18973), forest SW Macapá, ‘site 1’ (0.051°S, 51.136°W), 25 m a.s.l., 12.x.2016 (B.A. Huber, L.S. Carvalho)GoogleMaps  ; 2♂ 2♀ in pure ethanol, ZFMKAbout ZFMK (Br 16-246), same dataGoogleMaps  . 3♂ 2♀, ZFMK (Ar 18974), forest SW Macapá, ‘site 2’ (0.051°S, 51.123°W), 20 m a.s.l., 12.x.2016 (B.A. Huber, L.S. Carvalho). 2♂ 3♀, ZFMK (Ar 18975), forest SW Macapá, ‘site 4’ (0.057°S, 51.234°W), 25 m a.s.l., 13.x.2016 (B.A. Huber, L.S. Carvalho); 1♀ 2 juvs in pure ethanol, ZFMKAbout ZFMK (Br 16-254), same dataGoogleMaps  .

Amazonas: 9♂ 11♀, ZFMKAbout ZFMK (Ar 18976), Manaus, Reserva Ducke (2.932°S, 59.970°W), 80 m a.s.l., 5– 6.xi.2016 (B.A. Huber, L.S. Carvalho)GoogleMaps  ; 1♀ in pure ethanol, ZFMKAbout ZFMK (Br 16-332), same dataGoogleMaps  . 9♂ 6♀, ZFMK (Ar 18977), Presidente Figueiredo, Maroaga Cave and surrounding forest (2.050°S, 59.972°W), 110–150 m a.s.l., 7.xi.2016 (B.A. Huber, L.S. Carvalho); 1♂ 2♀ in pure ethanol, ZFMKAbout ZFMK (Br 16-340), same dataGoogleMaps  . 6♂ 7♀, ZFMK (Ar 18978–79), forest near Humaitá, ‘site 2’ (7.563°S, 63.116°W), 65 m a.s.l., 20–21.x.2016 (B.A. Huber, L.S. Carvalho); 2♀ in pure ethanol, ZFMKAbout ZFMK (Br 16-287), same dataGoogleMaps  . 7♂ 1♀, ZFMK (Ar 18980), forest near Humaitá, ‘site 3’ (7.512°S, 63.393°W), 80 m a.s.l., 22.x.2016 (B.A. Huber, L.S. Carvalho); 1♂ 2 juvs in pure ethanol, ZFMKAbout ZFMK (Br 16-293), same dataGoogleMaps  . 12♂ 9♀, ZFMK (Ar 18981), forest near Tabatinga (4.244°S, 69.92–69.93°W), 90 m a.s.l., 2–4.xi.2016 (B.A. Huber, L.S. Carvalho); 1♀ in pure ethanol, ZFMKAbout ZFMK (Br 16-324), same dataGoogleMaps  .

Rondônia: 1♀, ZFMKAbout ZFMK (Ar 18982), Floresta Nacional do Jamari , ‘site 1’ (9.193°S, 63.107°W), 130 m a.s.l., 23.x.2016 (B.A. Huber, L.S. Carvalho)GoogleMaps  ; 1 juv. in pure ethanol, ZFMKAbout ZFMK (Br 16-294), same dataGoogleMaps  . 3♂, ZFMKAbout ZFMK (Ar 18983), Floresta Nacional do Jamari , ‘sites 2 & 3’ (9.22°S, 62.93°W – 9.26°S, 62.92°W), 110 m a.s.l., 24.x.2016 (B.A. Huber, L.S. Carvalho)GoogleMaps  . 2♂, ZFMKAbout ZFMK (Ar 18984), Floresta Nacional do Jamari , ‘sites 4 & 5’ (9.193°S, 63.037°W – 9.195°S, 63.082°W), 110–150 m a.s.l., 25.x.2016 (B.A. Huber, L.S. Carvalho).GoogleMaps 

Acre: 1♂ 3♀, ZFMKAbout ZFMK (Ar 18985), Rio Branco , Fazenda Experimental Catuaba (10.08°S, 67.625°W), 225 m a.s.l., 26–27.x.2016 (B.A. Huber, L.S. Carvalho)GoogleMaps  ; 2♂, ZFMKAbout ZFMK ( Ar 18986), same locality at 10.078°S, 67.619°W, 200 m a.s.l., 29.x.2016 (B.A. Huber, L.S. Carvalho)GoogleMaps  . 3♀, ZFMKAbout ZFMK (Ar 18987), Rio Branco, Reserva Florestal Humaitá (9.749°S, 67.666°W), 180 m a.s.l., 28.x.2016 (B.A. Huber, L.S. Carvalho)GoogleMaps  ; 1♂ in pure ethanol, ZFMKAbout ZFMK (Br 16-308), same data.GoogleMaps 

VENEZUELA: Bolívar: 1♂ 1♀, ZFMKAbout ZFMK (Ar 18988), km 102 from El Dorado (6°04’N, 61°24’W), ~ 500 m a.s.l., near ground, 2.xii.2002 (B.A. Huber)GoogleMaps  . 3♂ 1♀, ZFMK (Ar 18989–90), km 44 from El Dorado (6°25’N, 61°38.5’W), ~ 200 m a.s.l., near ground, 2.xii.2002 (B.A. Huber).

GUYANA: Upper Takutu-Upper Essequibo: 1♀ in pure ethanol, ZFMKAbout ZFMK (G010), 4.42 km S Gunn's Strip, bank of Essequibo river (1.613°N, 58.638°W), 240 m a.s.l., 6–15.vii.1999 (J.A. Coddington et al.).

TRINIDAD AND TOBAGO: Trinidad: 6♂ 2♀ in pure ethanol, ZFMKAbout ZFMK (G001), Arena Forest [10.56°N, 61.23°W], 29.vi.2002 (C.K. Starr, J.N. Sewlal).

Description (amendments; see Huber 2000). Tibia 1 in 108 newly examined males: 10.5–18.9 (mean 15.2); in 85 newly examined females: 8.1–13.6 (mean 10.8). Femora 3 in most males strongly enlarged and of different color than other legs (reddish rather than dark brown to black; Fig. 78 View Figure ); only very small males with barely enlarged femora 3 (e.g., diameters of femora in male with tibia 1 length 16.7: 0.24, 0.24, 0.43, 0.24; in male with tibia 1 length 13.6: 0.19, 0.19, 0.23, 0.19); femora 3 in males from Maroaga Cave near Presidente Figueiredo not or only slightly lighter than other femora. Most males with spines on metatarsi 2 and 3, rarely only on metatarsi 2, only on metatarsi 3, or without spines (very small males); prolateral trichobothrium present on tibia 1. Coloration of males usually similar to females ( Figs 78, 80 View Figure ), abdomen sometimes more reddish but with same pattern of dark internal marks; only in males from Reserva Ducke abdomen strongly reddish with few indistinct darker marks ( Fig. 79 View Figure ). Most females with pair of anterior epigynal humps (cf. Huber 2000: figs 808–809), barely visible or absent in females from Reserva Ducke, Tabatinga, and Catuaba; anterior margin of epigynal plate in females from these localities more rounded than in females from other localities.

Natural history. The spiders were found in large domed webs with a diameter of up to 50 cm, usually among buttresses of trees and under large tree logs, but sometimes also under large dead leaves on the ground (e.g., palm leaves; Manaus), or higher among the vegetation (especially juveniles). There seemed to be a locality-specific tendency with respect to the degree of exposure: at some localities the webs were mostly hidden in large sheltered spaces (Marabá, Tapajós, Jamari, Rio Branco), in others, most webs were rather exposed, often with the sun directly reaching the spiders (Belém, Humaitá, Tabatinga). They were also found in the twilight zone of caves, where they occupied the lower spaces up to 1 m above the ground (Maroaga Cave near Figueiredo; unnamed cave in Serra Pelada). At some localities, the spiders were extremely abundant. When disturbed, they started swinging strongly, moving the entire webs with them. In Arena Forest ( Trinidad), Sewlal & Starr (2008) found ~25% of M. aurantiacus  webs containing the nabid bug Arachnocoris trinitatis.

Distribution. Widely distributed in northern South America ( Fig. 724 View Figure ).

MNRJ

Museu Nacional/Universidade Federal de Rio de Janeiro

ZFMK

Zoologisches Forschungsmuseum Alexander Koenig

Kingdom

Animalia

Phylum

Arthropoda

Class

Arachnida

Order

Araneae

Family

Pholcidae

Genus

Mesabolivar

Loc

Mesabolivar aurantiacus ( Mello-Leitão, 1930 )

Huber, Bernhard A. 2018

2018
Loc

Blechroscelis aurantiacus Mello-Leitão, 1930 : 61

Mello-Leitão, 1930 : 61

Loc

Blechroscelis irroratus Mello-Leitão, 1947a : 160

Mello-Leitão, 1947a : 160

Loc

Blechroscelis virescens Mello-Leitão, 1947a : 161

Mello-Leitão, 1947a : 161

Loc

Psilochorus cambridgei Mello-Leitão, 1947a : 163

Mello-Leitão, 1947a : 163

Loc

Psilochorus browningi

Roewer, 1951 : 455