Badis andrewraoi , Valdesalici, Stefano & Voort, Stefan Van Der, 2015

Valdesalici, Stefano & Voort, Stefan Van Der, 2015, Four new species of the Indo-Burmese genus Badis from West Bengal, India (Actinopterygii: Perciformes: Badidae), Zootaxa 3985 (3), pp. 391-408: 392-395

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Badis andrewraoi

new species

Badis andrewraoi  , new species

( Figs. 1–2View FIGURE 1View FIGURE 2)

Holotype. MSNGAbout MSNG 57564, 39.2 mm SL, male, 5.vii. 2013; India: West Bengal: Darjeeling district: Dudhia: Mahananda River drainage, Balason River, 26 ° 49 ' 18.934 "N 88 ° 14 ' 31.160 "E; coll. Andrew A. Rao.

Paratypes. MSNGAbout MSNG 57565, 6, 29.8–36.4 mm SL, 5 July 2013: same location as holotype. MSNGAbout MSNG 57566, 1 male, 33.1 mm SL C&S (not included in table 1), 5 July 2013: same location as holotype.

Diagnosis. Badis andrewraoi  displays a colour pattern that differentiates it from all remaining Badis  species. Badis andrewraoi  can be discriminated from every member of the B. badis  group (included species: B. badis (Hamilton)  , B. chittagongis Kullander & Britz  , B. dibruensis Geetakumari & Vishwanath 2010  , B. ferrarisi Kullander & Britz  , B. kanabos Kullander & Britz  , B. soraya  and B. tuivaiei Vishwanath & Shanta  ) by absence of a blotch on the superficial part of the cleithrum above pectoral-fin base, from all members of the B. assamensis  group (included species: B. assamensis Ahl  and B. blosyrus Kullander & Britz  ) by absence of an opercular blotch and absence of two parallel rows of dark spots and alternating light and dark stripes along its physique, from every member of the B. ruber  group (included species: B. khwae Kullander & Britz  , B. ruber Schreitmüller  and B. siamensis Klausewitz  ) by absence of a cleithral blotch and absence of a blotch on the dorsolateral aspect of the caudal peduncle, from all members of the B. corycaeus  group (included species: B. corycaeus Kullander & Britz  and B. pyema Kullander & Britz  ) by absence of an ocellus on the caudal-fin base, from B. kyar Kullander & Britz  by presence of a conspicuous median black blotch on the caudal peduncle, from B. singenensis Geetakumari & Kadu  by absence of a posterodorsal opercle blotch and absence of three dorsal-fin blotches and a single round blotch on the anal-fin base, from B. juergenschmidti Schindler & Linke  by absence of white margins on dorsal and ventral aspects of the caudal fin in males and presence of a strongly curved caudal-fin base bar, and from B. britzi Dahanukar et al.  by presence of a conspicuous median black blotch on the caudal peduncle. Additionally, B. andrewraoi  displays an additional side bar on its nape (vs. absence in all other species except B. ferrarisi  , B. juergenschmidti  , in some B. soraya  , B. autumnum  and B. kyanos  ), and a medially broader posterior-most bar, displaying as a partially absorbed second median caudal peduncle blotch (vs. absence in all species except B. autumnum  and B. kyanos  ). The new species most closely resembles B. autumnum  and B. kyanos  in terms of colour pattern. It can be distinguished from B. autumnum  by absence of a conspicuous dark blotch on pectoral-fin base, absence of a blotch above the base of the opercular spine, vertical bars restricted to lower half of body (vs. bars 1 to 3 often conspicuous and complete, remaining bars fainter and strongly reduced, present only dorsolaterally), absence of a black caudal-fin margin, outlining entire fin, and by having more circumpeduncular scales (18 vs. 16– 18). It can be distinguished from B. kyanos  by vertical bars restricted to lower half of body (vs. forming large, fragmented black blocks dorsolaterally and ventrolaterally or bars reduced and present only dorsolaterally), and a pale colour pattern when stressed (vs. a dark grey body, a metallic dark blue operculum, with flanks almost entirely devoid of bars, and large, fragmented black blocks dorsolaterally), and having more lateral row scales modally (26 vs. 25).

Description. General body shape as in Figure 1 View Figure . Morphometric characters are listed in Table 1. Body moderately elongate and laterally compressed. Snout rounded. Head rounded in lateral aspect. Orbit situated in anterior half of head and upper mid-axis of body. Opercular spine triangular, with a single tip. Predorsal contour convex, concave in the holotype and straighter in smaller specimens. Dorsal-fin base slightly concave. Caudal peduncle with straight dorsal and ventral edge, longer than deep. Abdominal contour characteristically to some extent concave in males, somewhat convex in females.

Dentary pores 1–3, anguloarticular pores 1, preopercular pores 1–7, nasal pores 1–2, frontal pores 2–4, extrascapular pores 1–2, posttemporal opening pores 1–2, coronalis pore 1, lachrymal pores 1–3, infraorbital pores 1–4. Predorsal scales 5 anterior to coronalis pore, 7 posteriorly.

Scales on side strongly ctenoid, on top of head cycloid, scales on side of chest cycloid. Opercular scales ctenoid, preopercular and subopercular scales cycloid. Circumpeduncular scales 8 above and 8 below lateral line, totalling 18 scales. Scales in vertical row 1 ½– 2 ½ above and 7 – 7 ½ below lateral line. Scales in lateral row 23–26, modally 26. Tubed scales in lateral line 21 / 4–23 / 4, modally 23 /3, 23/ 4. Dorsal-fin base scaled with 1 scale row anteriorly and 1 ½ posteriorly, anal-fin base with 1 scale row. Caudal-fin base with 3–5 scale rows.

Dorsal-fin rays XV+ 10 –XVII+ 10, modally XVI+ 10. Anal-fin rays III+ 7 –III + 9, modally III+ 9. Pectoral-fin rays 13–14, modally 13. Vertebrae 26.

Colouration. In preservative, base colour brown to dark brown. Side of head grey to brown-grey. Postorbital stripe, when visible, dark grey-brown and crossing eye to lower jaw. Suborbital stripe grey-brown. Three dark grey-brown bars on flank, defined posteriorly. Dark grey-brown blotch on caudal peduncle. Dorsal, anal, and caudal fins grey to grey-brown, darker between rays. Dorsal fin with a narrow white margin and broad red-brown submarginal band. Soft portion with an additional dark, arched band. Anal fin with a narrow white margin. Pectoral fin pale white, pelvic fin pale white, dusky medially.

In life, male ( Fig. 2 View Figure ) colouration mood-dependent. Base colour light brown. Preorbital, postorbital and suborbital stripes black and often prominent, postorbital stripe most distinct. Ten vertical black bars on flanks, an eleventh and twelfth bar on nape. Bars complete or incomplete; when incomplete, bars restricted ventrolaterally. Conspicuous row of black blotches on scaly basal cover of dorsal fin, one for each bar, and anal fin, at ventral termination of bars 3 and 4. Distinct median black blotch on caudal peduncle, often connecting with bar 1. Bar 1 broader medially, often displaying as a second, partially absorbed blotch. Flank with scattered orange spots. Operculum and cheek with orange patches, formed by spots on scales. Caudal fin dark distally, orange centrally. Anal and pelvic fins dark distally, orange or blue centrally. Dorsal fin with dark blotches between fin spines, orange outward. Pectoral fins hyaline. Dorsal, anal and pelvic fins with a moderately broad, bright white marginal band. Dorsal fin with a narrow black submarginal band. Soft portion of dorsal fin with a dark, arched band. Anal and pelvic fins with a broad, black submarginal band. Female same as male, except fewer orange spots on flank and operculum, cheek without orange patches formed by spots on scales. All fins hyaline.

When stressed, Badis andrewraoi  becomes pale and almost colourless.

Distribution. Badis andrewraoi  is currently only known with certainty from the Mahananda River drainage, Balason River, Darjeeling district, West Bengal, India ( Fig. 3 View Figure ).

Ecological notes. Badis andrewraoi  was collected from a medium-sized river with a sand substrate (A. A. Rao, pers. comm.).

Etymology. Badis andrewraoi  is named for Andrew A. Rao, who discovered, collected and donated the material for all the new species described in this paper. The name is applied in recognition of his substantial contributions to ichthyology. Treated as a noun in the masculine genitive singular.

TABLE 1. Morphometric characters of holotype (MSNG 57564) and seven paratypes (MSNG 57565, MSNG 57566) of Badis andrewraoi, new species, expressed as a percentage of standard length (SL) or head length (HL).

Holotype Paratype range Mean ± S.D.
Standard length (SL) in mm

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