Badis kyanos , Valdesalici, Stefano & Voort, Stefan Van Der, 2015

Valdesalici, Stefano & Voort, Stefan Van Der, 2015, Four new species of the Indo-Burmese genus Badis from West Bengal, India (Actinopterygii: Perciformes: Badidae), Zootaxa 3985 (3), pp. 391-408: 399-402

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Badis kyanos

new species

Badis kyanos  , new species

( Figs. 7–9View FIGURE 7View FIGURE 8View FIGURE 9)

Holotype. MSNGAbout MSNG 57571, 35.2 mm SL, male, 11 July 2013; India: West Bengal: Jalpaiguri district: 7 km west of Dam Dim: Tista River drainage, Chel River, 26 ° 87 ’ 48.42 ”N 88 ° 61 ’00.44”E; coll. Andrew A. Rao.

Paratypes. MSNGAbout MSNG 57572, 6, 27.1–32.4 mm SL, 11 July 2013: same location as holotype. MSNGAbout MSNG 57573, 1 male, 28.9 mm SL C&S, 11 July 2013: same location as holotype.

Diagnosis. Badis kyanos  displays a colour pattern that discerns it from all other Badis  species. Badis kyanos  can be discriminated from every member of the B. badis  group (included species: B. badis  , B. chittagongis  , B. dibruensis  , B. ferrarisi  , B. kanabos  , B. soraya  and B. tuivaiei  ) by absence of a blotch on the superficial part of the cleithrum above pectoral-fin base, from all members of the B. assamensis  group (included species: B. assamensis  and B. blosyrus  ) by absence of an opercular blotch and absence of two parallel rows of dark spots and alternating light and dark stripes along its physique, from every member of the B. ruber  group (included species: B. khwae  , B. ruber  and B. siamensis  ) by absence of a cleithral blotch and absence of a blotch on the dorsolateral aspect of the caudal peduncle, from all members of the B. corycaeus  group (included species: B. corycaeus  and B. pyema  ) by absence of an ocellus on the caudal-fin base, from B. kyar  by presence of a conspicuous median black blotch on the caudal peduncle, from B. singenensis  by absence of a posterodorsal opercle blotch and absence of three dorsal-fin blotches and a single round blotch on the anal-fin base, from B. juergenschmidti  by absence of white margins on dorsal and ventral aspects of the caudal fin in males and presence of a strongly curved caudal-fin base bar, and from B. britzi  by presence of a conspicuous median black blotch on the caudal peduncle. Additionally, B. kyanos  shows a supplementary side bar on its nape (vs. absence in all other species except B. ferrarisi  , B. juergenschmidti  , in some B. soraya  , B. autumnum  and B. andrewraoi  ), a medially broader posterior-most bar, displaying as a partially absorbed second median caudal peduncle blotch (vs. absence in all species except B. autumnum  and B.

andrewraoi  ), its vertical bars forming large, fragmented black blocks dorsolaterally and ventrolaterally (vs. absence of fragmented black blocks), and a stress colouration unique within the genus, consisting of a dark grey body, metallic dark blue operculum, flanks almost entirely devoid of bars, and large, fragmented black blocks dorsolaterally (vs. pale). Badis kyanos  most closely resembles B. autumnum  and B. andrewraoi  in terms of colour pattern, from which it is differentiated by, and presence of an indistinct, arched vertical band, proximally in the caudal fin in life of stressed male individuals (vs. absence). It can be further distinguished from B. autumnum  by absence of a conspicuous dark blotch on pectoral-fin base, absence of a blotch above the base of the opercular spine, absence of a black caudal-fin margin, outlining entire fin, and in having more circumpeduncular scales (18– 19 vs. 16–18). It can be further distinguished from B. andrewraoi  by presence of a reduced set of vertical bars, present only dorsolaterally (vs. bars restricted to lower half of body), and having fewer lateral row scales modally (25 vs. 26).

Description. General body shape as in Figure 7 View Figure . Morphometric characters are listed in Table 3. Body elongate and laterally compressed. Snout and head rounded in lateral aspect. Orbit situated in anterior half of head and upper mid-axis of body. Opercular spine triangular, with a single tip. Predorsal contour concave, in smaller specimens straighter. Dorsal-fin base slightly concave. Caudal peduncle with straight dorsal and ventral profile, longer than deep. Abdominal contour typically slightly concave in males, slightly convex in females.

Dentary pores 1–3, anguloarticular pores 1, preopercular pores 1–6, nasal pores 2, frontal pores 2–3, extrascapular pores 1–2 – 3–5, posttemporal opening pores 1, coronalis pore 1, lachrymal pores 1–3, infraorbital pores 1–4. Predorsal scales 5 anterior to coronalis pore, 8 posteriorly.

Scales on side strongly ctenoid, on top of head cycloid, scales on side of chest cycloid. Opercular, preopercular scales ctenoid and subopercular scales cycloid. Circumpeduncular scales 8 above and 8 or 9 below lateral line, totalling 18–19 scales, modally 18. Scales in vertical row 1 ½– 2 above and 7, rarely 8, below lateral line. Scales in lateral row 25–27, modally 25. Tubed scales in lateral line 21 / 4–23 / 4, modally 22 / 4. Dorsal-fin base scaled with 1 scale row anteriorly and 1 ½– 2 posteriorly, anal-fin base with 1–2 scale rows. Caudal-fin base with 3–5 scale rows.

Dorsal-fin rays XV+ 10 –XVII+ 10, modally XIII+ 10, XV+ 10. Anal-fin rays III+ 7 –III + 10, modally III+ 9. Pectoral-fin rays 13–14, modally 13. Vertebrae 26.

Colouration. In preservative, base colour grey-brown to grey-blue. Side of head grey-blue. Two to three dark grey bars across sides, defined posteriorly. Dark grey blotch on caudal peduncle. Dorsal, anal, and caudal fins greybrown to grey-blue, darker between fin rays. Dorsal fin darker proximally with a narrow white margin and redbrown submarginal band. Anal fin with a narrow white margin. Pectoral fin pale white, pelvic fin pale white, dusky medially.

In life, male ( Fig. 8 View Figure ) colouration mood-dependent (see below). Base colour a soft green-slate-grey. Preorbital, postorbital and suborbital stripes black and conspicuous. Oblique dark brown bar on opercle, roughly parallel to suborbital stripe. Twelve incomplete vertical bars across flank and nape. Bars 6 to 10 sometimes fusing, forming large, fragmented black blocks dorsolaterally and ventrolaterally, bar 4 fusing only dorsolaterally. When bars present, numbers 3 to 11 restricted to ventrolateral aspect of body, each corresponding with a conspicuous black blotch on scaly basal cover of dorsal fin. Indistinct anal-fin blotches present, corresponding with bars 3 and 4.

Distinct median black blotch on caudal peduncle, often connecting with bar 1. Bar 1 broader medially, displaying as a second, partially absorbed blotch. Body with a faint blue shine. 1 or 2 scales between bars occasionally with orange or brown spots, sometimes including the barred scale. Operculum dark, with orange or brown patches formed by spots on scales. Cheek with orange or brown patches, formed by spots on scales. Caudal fin hyaline, dorsal fin with orange tinge distally. Anal and pelvic fins a soft blue anteriorly. Pectoral fins with yellow tinge. Dorsal, anal and pelvic fins with a narrow, bright white marginal band. Dorsal fin with a narrow black submarginal band and indistinct dark blotches between fin spines. When stressed ( Fig. 9 View Figure ), body dark grey, operculum metallic dark blue, flanks almost entirely devoid of bars (bars 1, 2 and 3 faintly visible) but with large, fragmented black blocks dorsolaterally. A dark orange spot on scales on sides. Pelvic and anal fins dark grey. Female, the same as males, except bars across sides and nape fainter, fewer orange spots on body, cheek and operculum devoid of orange or brown patches formed by spots on scales. Dorsal fin with faint orange tinge distally, otherwise all fins hyaline.

Distribution: Presently only known from the type locality, the Chel River, 7 km west of Dam Dim, Tista River drainage, Jalpaiguri district, West Bengal, India ( Fig. 3 View Figure ).

Etymology. From the ancient Greek ‘kyanós’ (κυανός), a noun, (sometimes spelled ‘kuanos’ (κύανος)), from which the word kyanite is derived. Kyanite is a type of granite which consists of blue-grey crystals and in one of its natural forms resembles the colour pattern of the new species.

Remarks. Badis kyanos  was first introduced into the aquarium trade as ‘ Badis  sp. Granite’ (A. A. Rao, pers. comm.). The stress colouration (see above and Fig. 9 View Figure ) in B. kyanos  appears to be unique within the genus.

TABLE 3. Morphometric characters of holotype (MSNG 57571) and seven paratypes (MSNG 57572, MSNG 57573) of Badis kyanos, new species expressed as a percentage of standard length (SL) or head length (HL).

Holotype Paratype range Mean ± S.D.
Standard length (SL) in mm

Museo Civico di Storia Naturale di Genova 'Giacomo Doria'